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Design Decision: HDX Graphics Overview

  • Contributed By: Rico Projer, Jason Delgado, Gerhard Krenn Special Thanks To: Sasa Petrovic, Muhammad Dawood, Nick Czabaranek, Martin Zugec, Martin Latteier


To meet different user requirements, the Citrix HDX protocol allows for different graphics modes to be configured. The purpose of this article is to outline the different HDX modes and how they are configured. It gives you a starting point from where you can configure your environment to best fit the needs of your users, your workload, and the current network conditions.

Important to note: This article is based on Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops 1912 unless stated otherwise.

DISCLAIMER: Results may vary and it is highly recommended to run your own tests to see what works best for your use cases.

HDX Graphics Overview

Before diving into the specific graphics policies, let’s review how we categorize what you see on your HDX session screen and the underlying technologies that are used for presentation.

As we deliver graphic content for applications or desktops the HDX graphics encoding engine, Thinwire, analyzes the content on screen in real-time and dynamically categorizes the display data into three types:

  • Text, Simple Images and Solid Colors
  • Static Image Content
  • Moving (or Fluid) Images


In this example, text or simple images are highlighted in blue, static images in orange and moving (or fluid) images in green.

Within Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops, Thinwire can take different approaches for display analysis, compression, and delivery: Citrix adapts the use of industry-leading standards, Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also called H. 264, High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and AOMedia Video 1 (AV1) for efficient delivery of high-quality video content in its “Full-Screen” and “Selective” codec implementations.

  • Choosing to Configure Thinwire to not use the Video Codec or Configure Thinwire to use the Video Codec for Actively Changing Regions allows Thinwire to sense regions of transient content (fluid images or video) and encodes it based on set policy and capabilities detected on the endpoint. Thinwire encodes these “selected” (or transient) regions either as Adaptive JPEG or by employing a video codec (Hx264, H.265, or AV1). Adaptive JPEG and “Selective” H.264 / H.265 / AV1 are considered subfeatures as Thinwire is the core technology. The remaining, non-transient regions (encoded as JPEG and Run-Length Encoding (RLE)) are then combined to complete the in-session display.
  • Choosing to Configure Thinwire to use the Codec For the Entire Screen tells Thinwire to treat the entire screen as transient content, except for text (by default), and encodes display data using H.264, H.265 or AV1 video codecs, depending on the server and client capabilities.
    Text is then overlaid onto the screen to provide a complete image. Newer video codecs like AV1 and H.265 can achieve higher compression over H.264 without compromising quality. However, AV1 and H.265 are expensive in processing and are only supported when used with select GPUs on the Virtual Delivery Agent (VDA).
    Neither AV1 nor H.265 can be used when CPU encoding is used. Also, AV1- or H. 265-compatible hardware, in the form of GPU or purpose-built thin client, is required to decode AV1 and H.265 display data on the client endpoint.
    Review vendor documentation to determine AV1 and H.265 supportability for your endpoint hardware.

AV1 is supported from CVAD 2305 (NVIDIA) or CVAD 2308 (Intel) and CWA 2311 and onward.

Compared to both H.264 and H.265, AV1 has better compression and image quality. Encoding and decoding AV1 is currently impossible to do without a compatible GPU. Citrix supports AV1 encoding for both NVIDIA and Intel GPUS.

The requirements for AV1 are as follows:

  • VDA 2305 or higher for NVIDIA GPUS or
  • VDA 2308 or higher for Intel GPUs
  • And a compatible GPU for encoding, see below:
  • NVIDIA Ada Lovelace-based GPU
  • Intel ARC or Intel Data Center GPU Flex Series GPUs

Depending on the configure HDX mode, these categories are encoded by different means:

  • Text and simple images are almost always encoded in a lossless fashion using Run-Length Encoding (RLE). Starting with Version 7.17, a Citrix proprietary RLE flavor called MDRLE is used which allows for a better compression rate CTX232041. Enabling the Optimize for 3D graphics workload disables the lossless text detection and transfer the content with H.264 / H.265, rather than RLE. You can visualize this policy through our Visio diagram later in this article.
  • For static images with both Selective H.264 / H.265 / AV1 and Adaptive JPEG, JPEG is used for encoding while the video codec is used if Full-Screen H.264 / H.265 / AV1 has been chosen as the graphics mode. If JPEG is used, the quality of it can be configured with the Visual Quality setting. Check the attached Visio chart later in this article for more details.
  • For moving images the video codec H.264 / H.265 / AV1 is used when configuring Full-Screen H.264 / H.265 / AV1 or Thinwire with Selective H.264. If Thinwire with Adaptive JPEG has been configured, JPEG is used with a quality that automatically adapts (hence the name) to conditions such as frame rate and available bandwidth.

To recap, Thinwire uses different technologies when configured as follows:

Configure Thinwire to not use the Video Codec

  • Text: RLE
  • Simple Images and Solid Colors: RLE
  • Static images: JPEG
  • Moving Images: Adaptive JPEG

Configure Thinwire to use the Video Codec for Actively Changing Regions

  • Text: RLE
  • Simple Images and Solid Colors: RLE
  • Static images: JPEG
  • Moving Images: H.264 / H.265 / AV1

Configure Thinwire to use the Codec For the Entire Screen

  • Text: RLE (or H.264 / H.265 if Optimize for 3D graphics workload has been enabled)
  • Simple Images and Solid Colors: H.264 / H.265 /AV1
  • Static images: H.264 / H.265 / AV1
  • Moving Images: H.264 / H.265 / AV1

In the next section, we will cover the policies to achieve the behavior already mentioned.

HDX Graphics Modes

The Use Video Codec for Compression policy is the central function to give your end-users an optimal experience by configuring display methods appropriate for different use cases.
We map the technologies outlined with configurable policy settings within Citrix Studio.

  • For Actively Changing Regions = Thinwire with Selective H.264 / H.265 / AV1
  • Do Not Use Video Codec (default fallback method) = Thinwire with Adaptive JPEG
  • For the Entire Screen = Thinwire Full-Screen H.264 / H.265 /AV1
  • Use When Preferred (policy default) = Thinwire with Selective H.264 / H.265 is used unless Optimize for 3D Graphics Workloads is also set, then Thinwire Full-Screen H.264 / H.265 / AV1 is used.

Capabilities of both the client endpoint and the Virtual Delivery Agent (VDA) are evaluated at session launch or session reconnect. If the client does not support H.264 / H.265 / AV1, the display method is Thinwire with Adaptive JPEG regardless of the policy set on the VDA.

Configure Thinwire to use the Video Codec for Actively Changing Regions

The For Actively Changing Regions graphics mode is our most balanced setting. As such, we recommend starting with this mode as you begin to baseline policies within your environment since it covers a wide user base (for example, Office workers with occasional video playback). At its core, this mode uses JPEG for still images, RLE for text, simple images, solid color blocks, and bitmap caching for areas of the screen that the VDA determines to be static. Thinwire continuously analyzes the screen for regions of fluid movement, such as multimedia, and selectively uses a video codec: H.264 / H.265 / AV1 to encode the fluid region.

As illustrated, the video codec usage (H.264, H.265 or AV1) is “Inactive” until regions of fluid movement are detected. The VDA then transitions to a video codec in the form of H.264, H.265 or AV1 to encode the selected region during fluid movement and returns to an “Inactive” state once the selected region no longer contains fluid content.


The usage of a video codec, whether it is H.264, H.265 or AV1, provides a richer experience than adaptive JPEG at the expense of CPU to compress regions of fluid movement. Network bandwidth will generally be less with a video codec compared to Adaptive JPEG for multimedia workload, and newer codecs have better compression and, therefore generally speaking, lower bandwidth usage. It is highly recommended to run your own tests with your specific use case (check the Tools section below).

Quality H.265 AV1
Low -46.5% -56.6%
Medium -17.6% -44.1%
High -3.1% -36%

Newer codecs produce higher quality images at the same bandwidth utilization and higher FPS on lower bandwidths, as AV1 uses lower bandwidth per frame when compared to H.264 / H.265.

Configure Thinwire to not use the Video Codec

The Do Not Use Video Codec offers maximum compatibility for client endpoints, including endpoints that do not support the decoding of H.264 / H.265 graphics.

In this graphics mode, Thinwire behaves similarly as when it is configured For Actively Changing Regions. The VDA analyzes the screen for regions of fluid movement. Rather than encoding with H.264 / H.265 / AV1, however, Thinwire encodes moving images as Adaptive JPEG to deliver high compatibility or the use of a video codec is not needed. The remaining regions are presented as JPEG for still images, and RLE for text and simple graphics to deliver quality imagery.

CPU processing for encoding moving images using Adaptive JPEG is typically lower than with Thinwire with H.264 for Full Screen or Actively Changing Regions. This mode is desired if server scalability is your priority. The trade-off is seen in terms of increased bandwidth and decreased moving image fidelity in WAN scenarios. This graphics mode is recommended for use cases in which moving images are minimal, such as in a call center or point of sale system. In which case, the bandwidth utilization in this mode would be similar in comparison to Thinwire configured with Video Codec for Actively Changing Regions.

The Do Not Use Video Codec policy setting is the default fallback method for the other two graphics modes (Use the Video Codec for Actively Changing Regions or For the Entire Screen).

Configure Thinwire to use the Codec For the Entire Screen

The For the Entire Screen graphics mode setting configures the VDA to encode all display data using a video codec, except for text. Text is encoded using RLE and is overlaid with the remainder of the screen. If Optimize for 3D Graphics Workloads is enabled the entire screen, all content including text, is encoded with a video codec (H.265, H.265 or AV1).

Configuring Thinwire to use the Video Codec for the Entire Screen is designed for the heavy multimedia use case, where larger regions of the screen are in motion. Higher compression and quality are achieved at the expense of CPU and server scalability.

On its own, this mode provides a good user experience when heavy multimedia, 3-D modeling, or CAD drawing applications are in use.
The CPU can quickly become a bottleneck, if undersized, resulting in poor performance and user experience under heavy multimedia conditions.
Consider GPU offload capabilities to supplement this graphics mode while using these application types.

By default YUV420 is used as color space. With Full-Screen H.264 and Full-Screen H.265, you can choose between YUV420 or YUV444:


As you can see, YUV444 results in a better quality but significantly impacts the bandwidth requirements. When using YUV 444 with H.264, this will also disable hardware decoding on the client side.

With the release of Citrix Workspace app 2305, we introduced H.265 4:4:4 support, enabling us to offload the decoding to a capable Client GPU, thus lowering CPU utilization and significantly improving performance.

Citrix internal tests showed a 4X increase in Frames per Second (FPS) compared to H.264 4:4:4 and a 2.5X reduction in size per frame compared to H.264, due to H265’s superior efficiency. As a customer, this means you get higher FPS at the same bandwidth utilization.

You can enable YUV444 for Full-Screen H.264 with the following settings:

  • Visual Quality: Always lossless / Build to lossless
  • Allow visually lossless compression: Enabled

YUV 444 with Full-Screen H.265 has the following extra requirements:

  • VDA
  • CVAD 2209 or newer
  • NVIDIA Pascal GPU or newer


  • Use video codec: “Use when Preferred” or “For the Entire Screen”
  • Optimize for 3D Graphics: “Enabled”
  • Visual Quality: “Build-to-Lossless” or “Always Lossless”
  • Allow Visually Lossless: “Enabled”
  • Hardware Encoding: “Enabled”


  • Citrix Workspace app for Windows 2305 or newer
  • Enable H.265 support
  • Client GPU that supports H.265 4:4:4 decoding:
  • NVIDIA Turing or newer
  • Intel 10th Gen or newer

Check the Visio chart in this article for more details.

Build to lossless

Build to lossless is a special Thinwire configuration that optimizes graphics delivery for interactivity and final image quality. You can enable this setting by setting the Visual quality policy to Build to lossless.

Build to lossless compresses the screen using H.264, H.265 or AV1 during screen activity and sharpens to pixel perfect (lossless) when activity stops. The lossy image quality adapts to available resources to maintain the best possible frame rate. The sharpening step is performed gradually, radiating outwards from the mouse cursor. This allows for an immediate response if the user begins screen activity shortly after sharpening starts. For example, selecting a model and rotating it.

H.264 Build to lossless offers all the advantages of using a video codec for the entire screen, including hardware acceleration, but with the added benefit of a final, guaranteed lossless screen. This is critical for 3D-type workloads that require a final pixel-perfect image. For example, manipulating medical imagery. Also, H.264 Build to lossless uses fewer resources than full screen H.264 4:4:4. As a result, using Build to lossless usually results in a higher frame rate than Visually lossless H.264 4:4:4.

HDX Graphics Configurations

As the Use Video Codec for Compression policy is a good starting point to baseline your configuration, more policies can be set to further customize your visual policies to fit your different workloads.
By customizing these supporting policy settings, you can opt to reduce quality in certain areas to reclaim resources and achieve higher scalability and save on bandwidth.
You can also opt to increase quality to support use cases requiring precise visualizations, as in the healthcare industry. The chart below outlines these settings (click image to view full size PDF):


Furthermore, review our Use Cases Section below to discover how these additional policies (listed below) can reduce resource consumption, although at a slight reduction in quality (sometimes).


By default, all processing for encoding graphics occurs within the CPU on the VDA. AMD, Intel, and NVIDIA graphics cards are currently supported to offload encoding to the GPU before being sent to your endpoint for decoding.

Offloading graphics encoding to a GPU will free up resources on the CPU for other tasks, resulting in a better overall experience for the end-user.

Due to varying GPU feature support, visit Citrix Docs to review feature supportability for each vendor GPU when enabling the Use hardware encoding for video codec policy setting.

Use Cases

Once the settings details are known, the obvious next questions are: “What HDX mode is best for my use case?” or “Are there any configuration recommendations?” As usual, the answer is: It depends. Usually, a "one size fits all" approach may not be the best approach but rather different settings for different use cases. So, the first questions you have to ask yourself are: What challenges and use cases do I have? Are there are any intense graphics workloads, any multimedia requirements that I need to fulfill? How is the network connection of the users?

Usually, configuring Thinwire to use a video codec for actively changing regions is the best choice. Also, it is a good idea to explicitly configure the different settings to ensure that the same settings apply even after an update of your environment. As you can see in the following link, the default HDX mode used has changed over time HDX Graphics Encoder Configuration Overview – What Really Matters. Therefore, explicitly configure the HDX mode you would like to run. Generally, refrain from using "Use Video Codec for Compression: use when preferred" as this setting may have a different effect depending on the type of OS, Hardware, and VDA version you are running. Also avoid configuring any Citrix policies that are linked to legacy graphics mode. These settings are only supported on Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 and are left for compatibility reasons.

To give you an idea on how to start, we have created a few base line configurations for a few generic use cases below. Still, we recommend you run your own tests to ensure you have the best mode configured for your specific needs:

Low Bandwidth

This use case describes a user connecting through a connection with serious bandwidth constraints. The following baseline is a good start:

  • Use Video Codec for Compression: Do not use video codec
  • Visual Quality: Low
  • Preferred color depth for simple graphics: 8 bit / 16 bit
  • Extra Color Compression: Enabled
  • Target Frame Rate: 15
  • Target minimum frame rate: 10
  • Moving Image Compression: Enabled
  • HDX Adaptive Transport: Preferred

As you can see, even with a low bandwidth connection we oftentimes do not set the color depth to 8 bit but keep it at 16 bit. While 8 bit can lower the bandwidth requirement substantially, it also comes with a significantly lowered user experience. Therefore, 8 bit is only recommended for the most extreme cases where access won't be possible otherwise.

Call-Center / Point-of-Sales

This use case describes a call-center or point-of-sales workplace with no special multimedia requirements. The goal is to find a good mix between user-experience and user density:

  • Use Video Codec for Compression: Do not use video codec
  • Visual Quality: Medium
  • Preferred color depth for simple graphics: 24 bit
  • Extra Color Compression: Disabled
  • Target Frame Rate: 20
  • Target minimum frame rate: 10
  • Moving Image Compression: Enabled
  • HDX Adaptive Transport: Preferred

Task Worker

In the task worker use case, a user has some multimedia requirements such as watching videos online in addition to using a basic set of office applications:

  • Use Video Codec for Compression: For actively changing regions
  • Use hardware encoding for video codec: Enabled (where available)
  • Visual Quality: Medium
  • Preferred color depth for simple graphics: 24 bit
  • Extra Color Compression: Disabled
  • Target Frame Rate: 30
  • Target minimum frame rate: 10
  • Moving Image Compression: Enabled
  • HDX Adaptive Transport: Preferred
  • Hardware Acceleration for graphics: Enabled (configured for Citrix Workspace app if available)

3D workload

For 3D workloads such as CAD / CAE, the user experience is key, therefore the following settings are used:

  • Use Video Codec for Compression: For actively changing regions
  • Use hardware encoding for video codec: Enabled (where available)
  • Visual Quality: Build to lossless
  • Target Frame Rate: 30 (can be 60 if necessary)
  • Target minimum frame rate: 10
  • HDX Adaptive Transport: Preferred
  • Hardware Acceleration for graphics: Enabled (configured for Citrix Workspace app if available)
  • H265 Decoding for graphics: Enabled (configured for Citrix Workspace app if available)

Endpoint Device Consideration

Our goal is to support delivery of your Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops to any device, anywhere.

On the surface this sounds appealing. However, this does not necessarily mean that all capabilities are present on all endpoints. For example, H.264 / H.265 / AV1 decoding support may be missing, or supported only within specific boundaries such as the max monitor resolution or max number of monitors.

We recommend reviewing the vendor documentation for your chosen endpoint to determine overall supportability for H.264 / H.265 / AV1.

Thin Clients

Most thin clients are purpose-built for targeted use cases, with specific software configurations that are optimized for their hardware platform. We encourage working with your vendor to evaluate a thin client test unit within your environment before purchase to ensure that the endpoint meets your organizational needs.

It is highly recommended to visit our Citrix Ready website during the research phase of your project to determine if the hardware under consideration has passed evaluation and is compatible with the features you desire.

The Citrix Ready program classifies thin clients based on qualified use case capabilities:

  • HDX Ready – Supports Task Workers accessing basic office applications and light multimedia.
  • HDX Premium – Supports similar workloads as HDX Ready endpoints Additionally, HDX Premium endpoints provide support for Unified Communications such as Skype for Business.
  • HDX 3D Pro – Supports Power Users requiring high-end endpoint performance when accessing graphically intensive applications, such as CAD, Geographical Information System (GIS), and medical imaging related software H.264 / H.265 Codec support is required to pass qualification.

You can find the certification criteria for the features under each HDX level here.

Thick Clients

If you manage thick client endpoints in your environment, consider the following components when determining Codec Support (H.264 / H.265):

  • Operating System: Some Linux distributions require other libraries to be installed.
  • Browser: Citrix Workspace app for HTML5
  • Citrix Receiver/ Workspace app version: The Feature Support Matrix can be found here.
  • GPU Offload Capability


Are there any tools that help you configure your environment? Yes, there are quite a few to help you on your journey on finding the perfect configuration set for you:

HDX Monitor


HDX Monitor helps you to check what settings are actually in effect in a particular session. The latest version can be found here.

Graphics status indicator

The build-in graphics status indicator can be enabled through Citrix policy by enabling the Graphic status indicator setting and will show you the current settings in the Citrix session:


Key Takeaways

The Use Video Codec for Compression policy lets you choose between the different HDX graphics modes illustrated above. Each mode has its benefits and trade-offs in terms of resource consumption, whether it be CPU or network utilization. Resource consumption, particularly CPU, affects server scalability.

Other policies, such as Visual Quality, Target Framerate, and others can be customized to offset the resource consumption at the expense of minor visual quality, or increase quality where it is needed most. Customize these policies to fit the uses-cases within your own environment. Refer to the Visio Diagram to guide you through the process.

Endpoint selection is essential for compatibility with your selected graphics mode. The VDA configures Thinwire to not use the video codec as a fallback method, for endpoints without H.264 support.

Use our built-in tools (HDX Monitor and the Graphics Status Indicator) to evaluate if your policy settings have met your desired outcome.

Thinwire For Actively Changing Regions is oftentimes an appropriate starting point. However, knowing your use cases and configuring your environment accordingly is the best approach to deliver a rich experience to end-users.


The goal of this article is to assist you with planning your own implementation. To make this task easier, we would like to provide you with source diagrams that you can adapt for your own needs: source diagrams.

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